Kujijuka birakenewe- Ubusobanuro bw’imirimo yo kuri murandasi

Muri iyi minsi cyangwa se mu minsi iri imbere, umuntu udahugukiwe ashobora gutakara kuko hari amagambo agenda akoreshwa cyane cyane bitewe nuko amwe atari twe twayahimbye bikaba ngombwa ko twifashisha ayo icyo kintu cyavumburiwemo iyo iwacu tutari tubisanganywe. Mu bihugu by’Afrika hari inyamaswa zitahaba ariko ziba ahandi bitewe n’imiterere yaho yihariye. Iyo turebye mu bihugu by’iburayi tuhasanga inyamaswa zitwa ours/ourse (soma: u-r-u-s-e ). Kuko inaha tutazifite ntabusobanuro bwayo wabona ni ours cyangwa ourse(ikigore cya ours).  Kurundi ruhande ibyo duhuje tubibonera ubusobanuro , urugero natanga ni nk’imbeba:souris/mouse kuko naho zibayo.

Ntabwo nashakaga kuvuga kunyamaswa ahubwo nifuzaga gutanga ingero kugirango byumvikane neza, icyo nifuzaga ko twarebera hamwe ibyerekeranye na Internet twebwe twita murandasi kuko imaze kumenyekana bitewe nuko iri korohereza abantu batuye iyi si muri rusange. Ahubwo intego ni ukugirango turebe uko murandasi yadufasha kugira icyo dushyira mu mifuka yacu binyuze mu mahirwe ahari, ni muri urwo ruhande tureberamo.

   Inkomoko ya Murandasi (Internet)

Turifashisha igitabo cyitwa Brief story of internet cyanditwe muri 1997 cyandikwa n’abanditsi batandukanye:
Barry M. Leiner, Vinton G. Cerf, David D. Clark,Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock, Daniel C. Lynch,Jon Postel, Larry G. Roberts, Stephen Wolf.

Dore uko basobanuye murandasi: ni uburyo bwagutse bw’isakazamakuru byoroshya ihanahana n’ihererekanya makuru bikorerwa kuri mudasobwa kubantu batandukanye hatitawe aho babarizwa ku isi.

Ubu busobanuro babuvuze hatarabaho no gukoresha telephone ngendanwa, ubu ntabwo bikorerwa kuri mudasobwa gusa nizo twita smartphones nazo wazifashisha. Bwa mbere byatangiwe nuwitwa J.C.R. Licklider wo muri kamuza ya Leta ya Michigan 1962 mu kwezi kwa munani (Kanama) munyandiko yise “Galactic Network

  • 1964 nibwo hasohotse igitabo bwa mbere kivuga kuri iryo hererekanyamakuru cyanditse na Leonard Kleinrock 
  • 1965 mukureba niba koko ibyatangajwe bishoboka Thomas Merrill na Roberts baragerageje muri Leta ya Califorinia babasha guhuza za mudasobwa nkeya.
  • Kanama 1968 hakozwe icyo bise Interface Message Processors(IMP’s).
  • Nzeli 1969 hubatswe ibikorwa remezo bijyanye na IMP’s muli UCLA(Universtity of Califonia, Los Angeles) akaba ari naho hari hari mudasobwa yakira izindi(Host computer).
  • 1971-1972 nibwo hatangiye gukorwa za Applications zikoreshwa muri mudasobwa.
  • 19973 hakozwe Ethernet Technology na Bob Metcalfe wakoreraga mu kigo cyitwa XEROX PARC.
  • Muri 1980 nibwo batangiye isoko ryagutse ryo gucuruza murandasi kubayifuzaga ninako kandi na za mudasobwa zakomezaga kugenda zirushaho kongerwamo ibindi bintu bishya byorohereza abazikoresha,ibi byongereye isoko ryabakenera murandasi.
  • 1992  habayeho igikorwa cyo guhuza World Wide Web Consertium(W3C)  cyari kiyobowe na Tim Berners Lee, akaba ari nawe wahimbye WWW.
  • Ukwakira 24,1995 nibwo Federal of Networking Council (FNC) bumvikanye neza kubigendanye n’ubusobanuro bwa murandasi.   Murandasi/internet ni urwunge mpuzamahanga nkomatanyamakuru(Global information system) rukora ibi bikurikira:
    1. Guhuririza hamwe imirongo yose yo kw’isi hifashishijwe umurongo umwe rukumbi wumvikanye hisunzwe amasezerano ya Murandasi(Internet Protocol/IP) nibindi biyishamikiyeho. 2. Kuba ibasha gushyigikira uburyo bwo guhanahana amakuru hagendewe kumasezerano agena ihererenyamakuru(Transmission Protocol) nibindi bijyana nayo. 3. kuba yoroshye kubona,gukoresha byaba mu ruhame cyangwa umuntu kugiti cye kandi serivise zikaba ari nziza ndetse n’ibindi bikorwa remezo biyifatiyeho. Ngubwo rero ubusobanuro bwa murandasi.
  • Uko murandasi yagiye ikura mumyaka itandukanye

Imwe mumirimo ikorwa kubera ikoreshwa rya murandasi

Nkuko tubibonye haruguru ntabwo murandasi yavumbuwe natwe ngo tuyihe izina nyarwo ninako n’ibyayikomotseho nabyo biba biri mururimi rw’uwabihimbye. Maze kugenzura mbona ko kenshi nakenshi abantu tubaho uko tutifuza bidatewe nuko twabuze ubwenge, tudafite ubushobozi cyangwa ubushake ahubwo ahanini biterwa no kudasobanukirwa ikintu runaka. Ariko kurundi ruhande ntabwo abantu twakwirenganya kuko urebye iterambere ry’umugabane wacu nk’Afrika riri hasi, ubwo rero ntawarenganya undi.

Akaba ari nayo mpamvu twashyizeho urubuga ngo nibura bike turi kumenya umunsi wa none tubashe kubibyaza umusaruro kuburyo bwihuse ahari wenda abana bacu bazashyikira cyangwa bakarenga ikigero cy’indi migabane y’uburengerazuba bw’isi bakunze kwita Westernworld.

Ibyo tugiye kubona n’urutonde rugizwe n’imirimo 15 natoranije ngendeye nibura kubyakorohera umuntu kumva bidasabye ubusobanuro cyangwa isomo ryimbitse. Ndibugenekereze kubishyira mu kinyarwanda cyumvikana ntabwo ari amagambo avuye munkoranya(dictionary/dictionaire) yabugenewe, oyaaa!!

Reka duhere aha;

1.Imbugabitekerezo(blog /Blogger): ubusanzwe blog ni impine ya weblog. Blogger akaba ari umuntu wandika kunkuru runaka aho abantu basangira ibitekerezo bijyanye n’ubuzima bwa buri munsi. Uko watangira gukora urubuga bitekerezo kubuntu kanda hano

2. Kurema isoko rito/Niche website creator: mu isoko rigari abantu bashaka ibintu bitandukanye,ubu ni uburyo byo guhuriza hamwe abantu bahuje icyo bashaka muri rya soko rigari. Muri make ni umuntu urema urubuga bitekerezo akaruvana mu isoko rusange akaremamo isoko rito ry’abantu bahuje icyo bashaka akaba aricyo gituma abifuza icyo kintu bamugana.

3.Umuhuza/ Dropshipper: ni umuntu urimo hagati y’umucuruzi ufite ububiko(stock) n’umuguzi ukeneye igicuruzwa kiri mububiko bw’umucuruzi. Iyi ni serivise akora kuko ntaho ahurira n’ububiko cyangwa ibindi bikenerwa nk’inyemezabuguzi (facture/receipt) cyangwa kuba yageza igicuruzwa kumuguzi wa nyuma twita (dernier consommateur) byose bikorwa n’umucuruzi nyir’ububiko.

4.Umufasha w’urubuga /Online advertise/lead generator: umuntu ureshya abakoresha imbuga bitekerezo kugirango batange umwirondoro wabo bityo bazajye bagaragaza icyo bishimiye cyangwa batanogewe nacyo mubyo nyirurubuga atanga. Ibi bituma ubucuruzi burushaho gukura, icyo gihe bava kuba ari abakugana basanzwe bakaba abafatanya bikorwa n’abaguzi b’imena.

5.Umwanditsi/freelance writer : ni umuntu ufasha ibinyamakuru yaba kimwe cyangwa byinshi, mu kwandika, gutanga no gutangaza inkuru yateguye.

6.Umukosozi/ Proofreader: umuntu usoma inyandiko z’abandi banditse mbere yuko zisohoka haba mumucapiro cyangwa kuri murandasi , arebamo amakosa y’imyandikire, ubusobanuro bw’amagambo, kureba uko interuro zikoze, ibara, ibika bigize inyandiko n’ibindi bijyanye n’imyandikire inoze.

7.Ushinzwe imbugankoranyambaga /Social media manager: ashobora kuba ari umuntu ukora kugiti cye cyangwa ari abantu bafite ishyirahamwe rizwi bakaba bashinzwe gucunga no kugenzura ibikorwa bya business kuri murandasi.

8.Umushyikirizabutumwa/Consignor: umuntu cyangwa kampani bashinzwe kugeza ibintu byaguzwe kuri nyirubwite, nta kindi bakora uretse kubishyikiriza.

9.Umwanditsi/Transcriber: ni umuntu wandika ibyo undi muntu ari kuvuga byose.

10. Umusimbura/Virtual assistant: umukozi wigenga ariko ufite ububasha bwo gukoresha ibisabwa byose mu mirimo yo mubiro agafasha abagana kampani runaka.

11.Umunyabugeni/Graphic designer: ni umuntu ufite ubumenyi mubyerekeranye n’ubugeni agahuza ibintu bitandukanye amafoto,ibimenyetso,  agakoramo igihangano kigaragaza ikimenyetso cyangwa gitanga ubutumwa ubu nubu.

12. Uvuga rikijyana kumbugankoranyambaga/Social media influencer: ni umuntu usanzwe ukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga, we akaba amaze kugira uburambe ndetse n’abantu benshi bamufitiye icyizere mu rwego rw’imikorere. Uyu aba afite abantu benshi bamukurikiye, kenshi icyo ababwiye baracyumva cyane.

13. Youtube channel creator: umuntu ufasha gukora ama videos kugirango yongere urujya n’uruza rw’abasura imbuga binyuze mu mashusho  yakoze agashyirwa kuri youtube.

14. Mwarimu/tutor: umuntu utanga amasomo kubintu runaka afiteho ubumenyi akaba yabyigisha abandi bashaka kwihugura muri ubwo bumenyi.

15. Umuranga/affiliate marketer: ni umuntu wamamariza kampani ibicuruzwa byayo nayo ikamuha umufuragiro(commission) uba waragenwe niyo kampani igihe cyose umuranga azanye umuguzi.

Hasigaye iki?

Ngirango nawe ushobora kuba wabonyemo ibyo wakora?!! Yego rwose nawe wabikora pee. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe yagize ati” Kumenya byonyine ntabwo bihagije, tugomba gushyira mu ngiro. Kuba ufite ubushake nabyo ntibihagije, tugomba gukora.”

Wibishyira ejo cyangwa ejo bundi umwanya wawe ni nonaha, utegereje iki? Shakisha amakuru yibyo wumvise ibitekerezo byawe byatinzeho, soma, tega amatwi, fata umwanya utekereze uko wakwiyungura ubumenyi.

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